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Recently semiconductor measuring instruments of magnetic fields, so-called sensors.. began to be used. Hall. Sensors.. . The hall it is possible to measure both constant, and variation magnetic fields.

For reduction of weight of the magnetic focusing systems of multibeam klystrons reversny magnetic focusing often is used. Design of the multibeam focusing system with a reversny magnetic field represents a complex challenge of electronic optics. Development of modern programs of calculation of EOS on computers considerably facilitated the solution of a task on calculation and optimization of such focusing systems.

Classical example of a method of synthesis is calculation of electrodes of guns of Pierce with rectilinear trajectories. On this example, by the way, it is well visible that the problem of synthesis naturally breaks up to two parts – a so-called internal and external task of the theory of formation. Really, we set trajectories of electrons, we find distribution of potential in a bunch (in the Pier method – in corresponding the diode, and then we count (or we select the form of the focusing electrode and the anode out of a bunch providing the demanded distribution of potential on bathtubs.

Methods of formation and focusing of electron beams are, as a rule, connected with the principle of management of them, especially in those devices where elements of electron-optical devices enter directly designs of the oscillatory or slowing-down systems. Nevertheless, there is a number of the general requirements for which accurate explanation we will consider briefly the EOS main types, applied in electronic devices of radio engineering appointment. Let's begin this consideration with systems of initial formation of electron beams – electronic guns.

The main lack of EOS calculated by method of Synthesis is complexity of a form of the calculated focusing electrodes and their not technological effectiveness. It is possible to simplify a difficult sintezny form of the focusing electrodes using calculation of EOS by method of the Analysis which is described below.

As well as any theory, the theory of synthesis of systems of formation has the certain restrictions connected with need of introduction of the simplifying assumptions and has the difficulties both in the settlement relation, and concerning the solution of an external task, that is forms of electrodes and magnetic fields.

Has great theoretical and practical interest development of consecutive methods of synthesis of systems of formation of electronic streams on the basis of which it would be possible to count quickly the devices providing bunches with the set course of trajectories.

Now for production of sensors the semiconductors possessing big mobility of carriers of current are used. Elements concern to them That, Bi, Ge, and also some binary connections with structure of a zinc blende: HgSe ¸ HgTe, InAs ¸ InSb ¸ Pbse, PbTe and AgTe.

Of course - the differential equations written for nodal points of a grid form system of the linear algebraic equations which number is equal to number of unknown. Thus, the solution of a regional task is consolidated to the decision of system of the algebraic equations. Thus boundary conditions participate in the decision through values of potentials of boundary knots and reference points.

Klystrons with Pierce's guns and with Brillouin's flow were developed and issued for nearly 30 years and met the main requirements. Development went in the direction of increase in power at the expense of increase in tension. Devices with an output power 1mvt and more, working at a voltage of 300 - 400 kV were created.

Main objective of this work is use of modern computer programs of calculation for the analysis and optimization of a klystron of KIU-147 developed about 15 years ago. This klystron is used in accelerating equipment and has the following parameters:

The essence of a method consists in replacement of the differential equation with the equation corresponding to it in final differences which turns out replacement of derivatives with their approximate expressions through final differences. Let the counted field satisfy to the two-dimensional equation of Poisson: