Character Sketch For A Successful Phd Ft

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- permission of trade disputes by carrying out consultations and negotiations, and in case of impossibility of achievement of a consent - by consideration of disputes in specially created arbitration groups which decisions are obligatory for contracting parties of GATT.

Expansion of export and diversification of its geographical and commodity structure. The main priority is elimination of the existing export barriers, in particular licensing and various export duties here.

Article IX of the Agreement indicates uses of the exchange rate published by competent authorities of the import country which has to the need as far as it possibly, really to reflect a ratio of parities of currencies on the current commercial operations.

Other problem is connected with application of customs formalities. Notorious backwardness of customs service creates essential difficulties when using of deeply differentiated customs tariff.

At last, it should be noted one of the most important tendencies of development of GATT - its institutionalization, creation of an extensive network of constant bodies that considerably promoted transformation of GATT, despite originally temporary status, in the effective multilateral mechanism of regulation of international trade.

Priority application of price methods and mechanisms in regulation of foreign trade. In import regulation customs tariffs have to become the main tool. Concerning export the existing export quotas have to be gradually replaced with export duties which would correspond to a difference between the internal and world price.

- as the requirement to any member country interfering to take any actions in pursuance of its obligations on the basis of the Charter of the UN for preservation of an international peace and safety.

GATT contains a number of exceptions of a most favored nation treatment. The largest of them is permission to create free trade zones and Customs unions, without extending the privileges provided and a framework of these educations, to not participating countries. Other important situation is permission to developing countries to use on a constant basis by way of exception from a most-favored-nation principle four categories of trade privileges (tariff preferences on the general system of preferences; the tariff preferences operating in the relations between developing countries; more preferential differentiated terms formulated in a number of the agreements concluded during the "Tokyo" round; the special mode concerning the least developed countries).

In spite of the fact that the average rate of an import customs tariff of the developed countries after negotiations of the "Tokyo" round made only about 5%, average values far not fully reflected the real level of customs and tariff taxation. So, in the EU, Japan and the USA it was the share of the rates of a customs tariff exceeding 10% respectively 21,5, 17,1 and 16,0% of total tariff pozitsiy.18 And the most part of high rates was applied to import of the food, textiles and clothes, i.e. the main export articles of developing countries. The low share "connected" (i.e. not changed towards increase) tariffs was an important problem also. At the developed countries it concerned generally agricultural production, at developing - goods of all categories that gave the chance unilaterally to increase the level of customs taxation, worsening conditions of access to the markets.

Subsidies. GATT in principle rejects practice of subsidizing as productions and export. Though does not contain in the Agreement a direct ban on application of subsidies, it coordinates with certain requirements.

Besides, the reliable legal WTO system is vital for the countries of a transition period which take part or want to take part in processes of regional integration as membership in multilateral trade system strengthens their positions at negotiations with regional groups and accurately fixes them within the rules accepted by both parties.

Rules of negotiation about decrease in the customs duties, and also procedure of preparation and change of lists of tariff concessions are defined by articles XXVII and XXV When any state join GATT, on it all existing tariff privileges extend. Therefore the state entering GATT has to hold negotiations with other countries, having made counter proposals on decrease in rates of own customs tariff. Then these tariff concessions are consolidated in the list of tariff concessions which becomes part of the General agreement.

Thus, despite some failures, end in multilateral trade negotiations of the "Uruguayan" round within the General agreement on tariffs and trade became one of the most considerable international events which main result was a creation of a strong basis for essential updating and expansion of system of multilateral trade relations.